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# DEsingle
*Zhun Miao*
*2018-06-21*
[![build](https://bioconductor.org/shields/build/release/bioc/DEsingle.svg)](http://bioconductor.org/checkResults/release/bioc-LATEST/DEsingle/)
[![platform](https://bioconductor.org/shields/availability/3.7/DEsingle.svg)](https://miaozhun.github.io/DEsingle/#downloads)
[![downloads](https://bioconductor.org/shields/downloads/DEsingle.svg)](https://bioconductor.org/packages/release/bioc/src/contrib/DEsingle_1.0.5.tar.gz)
![Logo](https://github.com/miaozhun/DEsingle/blob/master/vignettes/DEsingle_LOGO.png?raw=true)
## Introduction
**`DEsingle`** is an R package for **differential expression (DE) analysis of single-cell RNA-seq (scRNA-seq) data**. It will detect differentially expressed genes between two groups of cells in a scRNA-seq raw read counts matrix.
**`DEsingle`** employs the Zero-Inflated Negative Binomial model for differential expression analysis. By estimating the proportion of real and dropout zeros, it not only detects DE genes **at higher accuracy** but also **subdivides three types of differential expression with different regulatory and functional mechanisms**.
For more information, please refer to the [manuscript](https://doi.org/10.1093/bioinformatics/bty332) by *Zhun Miao, Ke Deng, Xiaowo Wang and Xuegong Zhang*.
## Citation
If you use **`DEsingle`** in published research, please cite:
> Zhun Miao, Ke Deng, Xiaowo Wang, Xuegong Zhang (2018). DEsingle for detecting three types of differential expression in single-cell RNA-seq data. Bioinformatics, bty332. [10.1093/bioinformatics/bty332.](https://doi.org/10.1093/bioinformatics/bty332)
## Installation
To install **`DEsingle`** from [**Bioconductor**](http://bioconductor.org/packages/DEsingle/):
```{r Installation from Bioconductor, eval = FALSE}
if(!require(BiocManager)) install.packages("BiocManager")
BiocManager::install("DEsingle")
```
To install the *developmental version* from [**GitHub**](https://github.com/miaozhun/DEsingle/):
```{r Installation from GitHub, eval = FALSE}
if(!require(devtools)) install.packages("devtools")
devtools::install_github("miaozhun/DEsingle", build_vignettes = TRUE)
```
To load the installed **`DEsingle`** in R:
```{r Load DEsingle, eval = FALSE}
library(DEsingle)
```
## Input
**`DEsingle`** takes two inputs: `counts` and `group`.
The input `counts` is a scRNA-seq **raw read counts matrix** or a **`SingleCellExperiment`** object which contains the read counts matrix. The rows of the matrix are genes and columns are cells.
The other input `group` is a vector of factor which specifies the two groups in the matrix to be compared, corresponding to the columns in `counts`.
## Test data
Users can load the test data in **`DEsingle`** by
```{r Load TestData}
library(DEsingle)
data(TestData)
```
The toy data `counts` in `TestData` is a scRNA-seq read counts matrix which has 200 genes (rows) and 150 cells (columns).
```{r counts}
dim(counts)
counts[1:6, 1:6]
```
The object `group` in `TestData` is a vector of factor which has two levels and equal length to the column number of `counts`.
```{r group}
length(group)
summary(group)
```
## Usage
### With read counts matrix input
Here is an example to run **`DEsingle`** with read counts matrix input:
```{r demo1, eval = FALSE}
# Load library and the test data for DEsingle
library(DEsingle)
data(TestData)
# Specifying the two groups to be compared
# The sample number in group 1 and group 2 is 50 and 100 respectively
group <- factor(c(rep(1,50), rep(2,100)))
# Detecting the DE genes
results <- DEsingle(counts = counts, group = group)
# Dividing the DE genes into 3 categories at threshold of FDR < 0.05
results.classified <- DEtype(results = results, threshold = 0.05)
```
### With SingleCellExperiment input
The [`SingleCellExperiment`](http://bioconductor.org/packages/SingleCellExperiment/) class is a widely used S4 class for storing single-cell genomics data. **`DEsingle`** also could take the `SingleCellExperiment` data representation as input.
Here is an example to run **`DEsingle`** with `SingleCellExperiment` input:
```{r demo2, eval = FALSE}
# Load library and the test data for DEsingle
library(DEsingle)
library(SingleCellExperiment)
data(TestData)
# Convert the test data in DEsingle to SingleCellExperiment data representation
sce <- SingleCellExperiment(assays = list(counts = as.matrix(counts)))
# Specifying the two groups to be compared
# The sample number in group 1 and group 2 is 50 and 100 respectively
group <- factor(c(rep(1,50), rep(2,100)))
# Detecting the DE genes with SingleCellExperiment input sce
results <- DEsingle(counts = sce, group = group)
# Dividing the DE genes into 3 categories at threshold of FDR < 0.05
results.classified <- DEtype(results = results, threshold = 0.05)
```
## Output
`DEtype` subdivides the DE genes found by `DEsingle` into 3 types: **`DEs`**, **`DEa`** and **`DEg`**.
* **`DEs`** refers to ***“different expression status”***. It is the type of genes that show significant difference in the proportion of real zeros in the two groups, but do not have significant difference in the other cells.
* **`DEa`** is for ***“differential expression abundance”***, which refers to genes that are significantly differentially expressed between the groups without significant difference in the proportion of real zeros.
* **`DEg`** or ***“general differential expression”*** refers to genes that have significant difference in both the proportions of real zeros and the expression abundances between the two groups.
The output of `DEtype` is a matrix containing the DE analysis results, whose rows are genes and columns contain the following items:
* `theta_1`, `theta_2`, `mu_1`, `mu_2`, `size_1`, `size_2`, `prob_1`, `prob_2`: MLE of the zero-inflated negative binomial distribution's parameters of group 1 and group 2.
* `total_mean_1`, `total_mean_2`: Mean of read counts of group 1 and group 2.
* `foldChange`: total_mean_1/total_mean_2.
* `norm_total_mean_1`, `norm_total_mean_2`: Mean of normalized read counts of group 1 and group 2.
* `norm_foldChange`: norm_total_mean_1/norm_total_mean_2.
* `chi2LR1`: Chi-square statistic for hypothesis testing of H0.
* `pvalue_LR2`: P value of hypothesis testing of H20 (Used to determine the type of a DE gene).
* `pvalue_LR3`: P value of hypothesis testing of H30 (Used to determine the type of a DE gene).
* `FDR_LR2`: Adjusted P value of pvalue_LR2 using Benjamini & Hochberg's method (Used to determine the type of a DE gene).
* `FDR_LR3`: Adjusted P value of pvalue_LR3 using Benjamini & Hochberg's method (Used to determine the type of a DE gene).
* `pvalue`: P value of hypothesis testing of H0 (Used to determine whether a gene is a DE gene).
* `pvalue.adj.FDR`: Adjusted P value of H0's pvalue using Benjamini & Hochberg's method (Used to determine whether a gene is a DE gene).
* `Remark`: Record of abnormal program information.
* `Type`: Types of DE genes. *DEs* represents differential expression status; *DEa* represents differential expression abundance; *DEg* represents general differential expression.
* `State`: State of DE genes, *up* represents up-regulated; *down* represents down-regulated.
To extract the significantly differentially expressed genes from the output of `DEtype` (**note that the same threshold of FDR should be used in this step as in `DEtype`**):
```{r extract DE, eval = FALSE}
# Extract DE genes at threshold of FDR < 0.05
results.sig <- results.classified[results.classified$pvalue.adj.FDR < 0.05, ]
```
To further extract the three types of DE genes separately:
```{r extract subtypes, eval = FALSE}
# Extract three types of DE genes separately
results.DEs <- results.sig[results.sig$Type == "DEs", ]
results.DEa <- results.sig[results.sig$Type == "DEa", ]
results.DEg <- results.sig[results.sig$Type == "DEg", ]
```
## Parallelization
**`DEsingle`** integrates parallel computing function with [`BiocParallel`](http://bioconductor.org/packages/BiocParallel/) package. Users could just set `parallel = TRUE` in function `DEsingle` to enable parallelization and leave the `BPPARAM` parameter alone.
```{r demo3, eval = FALSE}
# Load library
library(DEsingle)
# Detecting the DE genes in parallelization
results <- DEsingle(counts = counts, group = group, parallel = TRUE)
```
Advanced users could use a `BiocParallelParam` object from package `BiocParallel` to fill in the `BPPARAM` parameter to specify the parallel back-end to be used and its configuration parameters.
### For Unix and Mac users
The best choice for Unix and Mac users is to use `MulticoreParam` to configure a multicore parallel back-end:
```{r demo4, eval = FALSE}
# Load library
library(DEsingle)
library(BiocParallel)
# Set the parameters and register the back-end to be used
param <- MulticoreParam(workers = 18, progressbar = TRUE)
register(param)
# Detecting the DE genes in parallelization with 18 cores
results <- DEsingle(counts = counts, group = group, parallel = TRUE, BPPARAM = param)
```
### For Windows users
For Windows users, use `SnowParam` to configure a Snow back-end is a good choice:
```{r demo5, eval = FALSE}
# Load library
library(DEsingle)
library(BiocParallel)
# Set the parameters and register the back-end to be used
param <- SnowParam(workers = 8, type = "SOCK", progressbar = TRUE)
register(param)
# Detecting the DE genes in parallelization with 8 cores
results <- DEsingle(counts = counts, group = group, parallel = TRUE, BPPARAM = param)
```
See the [*Reference Manual*](https://bioconductor.org/packages/release/bioc/manuals/BiocParallel/man/BiocParallel.pdf) of [`BiocParallel`](http://bioconductor.org/packages/BiocParallel/) package for more details of the `BiocParallelParam` class.
## Visualization of results
Users could use the `heatmap()` function in `stats` or `heatmap.2` function in `gplots` to plot the heatmap of the DE genes DEsingle found, as we did in Figure S3 of the [*manuscript*](https://doi.org/10.1093/bioinformatics/bty332).
## Interpretation of results
For the interpretation of results when **`DEsingle`** applied to real data, please refer to the *Three types of DE genes between E3 and E4 of human embryonic cells* part in the [*Supplementary Materials*](https://academic.oup.com/bioinformatics/advance-article/doi/10.1093/bioinformatics/bty332/4983067#supplementary-data) of our [*manuscript*](https://doi.org/10.1093/bioinformatics/bty332).
## Help
Use `browseVignettes("DEsingle")` to see the vignettes of **`DEsingle`** in R after installation.
Use the following code in R to get access to the help documentation for **`DEsingle`**:
```{r help1, eval = FALSE}
# Documentation for DEsingle
?DEsingle
```
```{r help2, eval = FALSE}
# Documentation for DEtype
?DEtype
```
```{r help3, eval = FALSE}
# Documentation for TestData
?TestData
?counts
?group
```
You are also welcome to view and post *DEsingle* tagged questions on [Bioconductor Support Site of DEsingle](https://support.bioconductor.org/t/desingle/) or contact the author by email for help.
## Author
*Zhun Miao* <<miaoz13@tsinghua.org.cn>>
MOE Key Laboratory of Bioinformatics; Bioinformatics Division and Center for Synthetic & Systems Biology, TNLIST; Department of Automation, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China.