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<!-- badges: start --> ![Bioconductor build]( ![Bioconductor platforms]( ![Bioconductor dependencies]( </br> ![GitHub]( ![GitHub repo size]( ![GitHub issues]( <!-- badges: end --> Genomic coverages remastered! The recoup package. ================================================== The explosion of the usage of Next Generation Sequencing techniques during the past few years due to the seemingly endless portfolio of applications has created the need for new NGS data analytics tools which are able to offer comprehensive and at the same time flexible visualizations under several experimental settings and factors. An established visualization tool in NGS experiments is the visualization of the signal created by short reads after the application of every NGS protocol. Genome Browsers (e.g. the UCSC Genome Browser) serve very well this purpose considering single genomic areas. They are very good when it comes to the visualization of the abundance of a single or a few genes or the strength of a few protein-DNA interaction sites. However, when it comes to the visualization of average signal profiles over multiple genomic locations (gene regions or others like DNA methylation sites or transcription factor binding sites), Genome Browsers fail to depict such information in a comprehensive way. Furthermore, they cannot visualize average signal profiles of factored data, for example a set of genes categorized in high, medium and low expression or even by strand and they cannot visualize all signals of interest mapped on all the genomic regions of interest in a compact way, something that can be done using for example a heatmap. In such cases, bioinformaticians use several toolkits like BEDTools and facilities from R/Bioconductor to read/import short reads and overlap them with genomic regions of interest, summarize them by binning/averaging overlaps to control the resolution of final graphics etc. This procedure often requires the usage of multiple tools and custom scripts with multiple steps. One of the most comprehensive and easy-to-use tools up to date is [ngs.plot]( It is sufficiently fast for most applications and has a low memory footprint which allows users to run it in low end machines too. It is command line based and users can run it by using a simple configuration file most of the times, has a rich database of genome annotation and genomic features and uses R/Bioconductor for underlying calculations and plotting of profiles. However, ngs.plot is not up to date with modern R graphics systems like `ggplot2` and `ComplexHeatmap`. As a result, among others, it is impossible to create faceted genomic profiles using a statistical design and in such cases, a lot of additional manual work and computational time is required in order to reach the desired outcomes. The same applies to heatmap profiles. Furthermore, the resolution of genomic profiles (e.g. per base coverage or per bin of base-pairs coverage) cannot be controlled and this can cause problems in cases where extreme levels of resolution (e.g. DNAse-Seq experiments) is required to reach meaningful biological conclusions. Last but not least, ngs.plot requires a not so straightforward setup in order to run, does not run in a unified working environment (e.g. R environment with its graphics displaying mechanisms) and in some cases produces oversized and complex output. The recoup package comes to fill such gaps by stepping on the shoulders of giants. It uses the now standardized and stable Bioconductor facilities to read and import short reads from BAM/BED files and also modern R graphics systems, namely [ggplot2]( and [ComplexHeatmap]( in order to create comprehensive averaged genomic profiles and genomic profile heatmaps. In addition it offers a lot of (easy to use) customization options and automation at various levels. Inexperienced users can gather their data in a simple text file and just choose one of the supported organisms and recoup does the rest for them. More experienced users can play with several options and provide more flexible input so as to produce optimal results. This vignette, although it covers basic usage of the package, it offers the basis for more sophisticated usage. recoup is not as fast as ngs.plot but we are working on this! Also, recoup is not here to replace other more mature packages. It is here to offer more options to users that need more sophisticated genomic profile visualizations. Finally, it offers a very flexible way to reuse genomic profiles whose calculations may be computationally and time expensive by offering a smart way to recognize which parameters have changed and acting based on these. ## 1. Getting started Detailed instructions on how to run the recoup genomic profile creation pipeline can be found under the main documentation of the package: ``` library(recoup) help(recoup) ``` Briefly, to run recoup you need: * A set of BAM or BED files that contain the aligned short reads from a protein- DNA interaction experiment (ChIP-Seq from transcrption factors, DNA methylation signals, DNAse-Seq etc.) or gene expression experiments (RNA-Seq, spliced or unspliced). Theoretically, alignments from other protocols can be used (e.g. to measure the coverage of Exome-Seq). * A set of reference genomic regions to calculate average profiles and heatmaps over. These can be provided as a BED-like text file with a header (see the data attached to the package, look at `recoup` man page). They can also be provided as an organism version keyword, e.g. `hg19` or `mm9` and the respective regions will be either retrieved from a local `recoup` annotation database setup, or downloaded on the fly (takes significantly more time as some extra operations are required). * A design file in the case that you wish to categorize your profiles (e.g. a set of H3K27me1 or H4K20me1 profiles categorized by gene transcription or expression levels -high, medium, low, or different levels of binding strength of a transcription factor close to the TSS). The design file should have in the first column unique identifiers which should be the same, a subset or a superset of those in the reference genomic regions. The package contains a small dataset which serves only for package building and testing purposes as well as complying with Bioconductor guidelines. These data are useful for the user to check how the input data to recoup should look like. For a more complete test dataset (a small one) have a look and download from [here]( ## 2. Getting some data In order to run smoothly the rest of the examples in these vignettes and produce some realistic results, you need to download a set of example BAM files, genomic regions and design files from [here]( Following, a description of each file in the archive (the tissue is always liver): * For the ChIP-Seq example + _WT_H4K20me1.bam_: H4K20me1 signals from wild type adult mice, chromosome 12 only + _WT_H4K20me1.bam.bai_: The index of the above + _Set8KO_H4K20me1.bam_: H4K20me1 signals from adult mice where the Set8 (Pr-Set7) gene is knocked out, chromosome 12 only + _Set8KO_H4K20me1.bam.bai_: The index of the above + _mm9_custom_chr12.txt_: Chromosome 12 mouse genes in a BED-like format + _design.txt_: A design file for profile plot faceting (or separation of heatmap profiles) with categorization of genes according to their expression (high, medium, low) and their direction of transcrpiption (strand). * For the RNA-Seq example + _WT.bam_: Gene expression RNA signals from wild type adult mice, chromosome 12 only + _WT.bam.bai_: The index of the above + _Set8KO.bam_: Gene expression RNA signals from adult mice where the Set8 (Pr-Set7) gene is knocked out, chromosome 12 only + _Set8KO.bam.bai_: The index of the above + _design_mm9_rna.txt_: A design file for profile plot faceting (or separation of heatmap profiles) with categorization of genes according to their Ensembl biotype and their direction of transcrpiption (strand). This type of categorization is also present in the fixed `recoup` annotation database In order to run the vignette examples, you should download and extract the archive to a path of your preference, e.g. `/home/me/recoup_tutorial`. In the rest of this tutorial, we assume that the path where the test data are placed is `/home/me/recoup_tutorial`. ## 3. Building a local annotation store Apart from a user specified file, the reference genomic regions used by recoup to construct average profiles over, can be predefined gene set from a few common organisms supported by recoup. See the `recoup` man page for a list of these organisms. In order to use this database of predefined genomic areas, you should execute at least once the function `buildAnnotationDatabase` with a list of organisms, a list of annotation sources (Ensembl, RefSeq and UCSC supported) and a desired path to store the annotation SQLite database (defaults to `file.path(system.file(package="recoup"),"annotation.sqlite")`). For example: ``` buildAnnotationDatabase(c("hg19","mm9","rn4"),c("ensembl","refseq")) ``` See the man page of `buildAnnotationDatabase` for more details. This step is not necessary for recoup to run as these annotations can be also downloaded on the fly. However, if subsets of the supported organisms are to be used often, it is much more preferrable to spend some time building the local store as it can save a lot of running time. ## 4. Running recoup The `recoup` function can be used to create coverage profiles from ChIP-Seq like experiments (signals over continuous genomic regions) or from RNA-Seq experiments (signals over non-continuous genomic regions). More details regarding each type can be found in * The ChIP-Seq coverage profile vignette (see the package vignettes) * The RNA-Seq coverage profile vignette (see the package vignettes) ## Quick examples ``` library(recoup) test.path <- "/home/me/recoup_tutorial/chipseq" chip.input <- list( WT_H4K20me1=list( id="WT_H4K20me1", name="WT H4K20me1", file=file.path(test.path,"WT_H4K20me1.bam"), format="bam", color="#EE0000" ), Set8KO_H4K20me1=list( id="Set8KO_H4K20me1", name="Set8KO H4K20me1", file=file.path(test.path,"Set8KO_H4K20me1.bam"), format="bam", color="#00BB00" ) ) ``` ### ChIP-Seq TSS profiles ``` genome <- file.path(test.path,"mm9_custom_chr12.txt") test <- recoup( input=chip.input, region="tss", type="chipseq", genome=genome, flank=c(2000,2000), binParams=list(flankBinSize=0,regionBinSize=100), selector=NULL, plotParams=list(heatmapScale="common"), saveParams=list(ranges=TRUE,coverage=TRUE,profile=TRUE), rc=0.5 ) ``` ### RNA-Seq gene body profiles ``` library(recoup) test.path <- "/home/me/recoup_tutorial/rnaseq" rna.input <- list( list( id="WT", name="WT", file=file.path(test.path,"WT.bam"), format="bam" ), list( id="Set8KO", name="Set8KO", file=file.path(test.path,"Set8KO.bam"), format="bam" ) ) test <- recoup( input=rna.input, type="rnaseq", genome="mm9", flank=c(1000,1000), binParams=list(flankBinSize=50,regionBinSize=100), selector=NULL, preprocessParams=list(normalize="linear"), plotParams=list(signalScale="log2"), rc=0.5 ) ``` ## 5. Citing recoup recoup was published in [BMC Bioinformatics]( If you use it in your work, please cite: > Panagiotis Moulos: **recoup: flexible and versatile signal visualization from next generation sequencing**, *BMC Bioinformatics*, 22:2, 2021.