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MICSQTL: Multi-omic deconvolution, Integration and Cell-type-specific Quantitative Trait Loci ================ # Introduction Our pipeline, `MICSQTL`, integrates RNA and protein expressions to detect potential cell marker proteins and estimate cell abundance in mixed proteomes without a reference signature matrix. `MICSQTL` enables cell-type-specific quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping for proteins or transcripts using bulk expression data and estimated cellular composition per molecule type, eliminating the necessity for single-cell sequencing. We use matched transcriptome-proteome from human brain frontal cortex tissue samples to demonstrate the input and output of our tool. This pipeline enables valuable insights into cellular composition, facilitates cell-type-specific protein QTL mapping, and streamlines multi-modal data integration and dimension reduction. ![MICSQTL workflow.](./vignettes/fig1.PNG) ## Install ``` r # Install # options(download.file.method = "wininet") # devtools::install_github("YuePan027/MICSQTL") library(MICSQTL) library(reshape2) library(RColorBrewer) library(GGally) library(ggplot2) ``` # Quick start To conduct the analysis, the initiation involves the use of a `SummarizedExperiment` object that contains bulk protein expression data, which can be rescaled using either log or MinMax transformations, in the assays slot. The row metadata (rowData slot) should contain information about the protein features. Additionally, incorporation of bulk gene expression data, which can also be rescaled using either log or MinMax transformations and needs to be consistent with the bulk protein expression data, as well as a reference file (depending on the chosen method), as integral elements within the metadata slot, are imperative. For more accurate cell-type fraction estimations, it's recommended to include only marker genes. For easier illustration purposes, we provide an example `SummarizedExperiment` object within this package, which contains the following elements: - protein_data (assay): An example proteomics data (on log scale) with 2,242 rows (protein) and 127 columns (sample). - anno_protein (rowData): A data frame with 2,242 rows and 4 columns (Chr, Start, End, Symbol) as annotations of each protein from `protein_data`. - ref_protein (in metadata): A signature matrix with 2,242 rows (protein) and 4 columns (cell types), which serves as a reference of known cellular signatures (on log scale). - gene_data (in metadata): A data frame with 2,867 rows (genes) and 127 columns (sample) (on log scale). - ref_gene (in metadata): A signature matrix with 4,872 rows (genes) and 5 columns (cell types), which serves as a reference of known cellular signatures (on log scale). - prop_gene (in metadata): A pre-defined deconvoluted transcriptome proportion matrix. - SNP_data (in metadata): A sparse matrix with 2,000 rows (SNP), which stores the information of genetic variants at each location from one chromosome and 127 columns (sample, should match the sample in `protein_data`). Each matrix entry corresponds to the genotype group indicator (0, 1 or 2) for a sample at a genetic location. - anno_SNP (in metadata): A data frame with 2,000 rows and 3 columns (CHROM, POS, ID), which stores Annotations of each SNP from `SNP_data`. - meta (in metadata):A data frame with 127 rows (sample) and 2 columns (disease status and gender) as metadata. - cell_counts (in metadata): A matrix containing cell counts across multiple subjects, where subjects are represented as rows and cell types as columns. Each entry (i, j) in the matrix indicates the count of cells belonging to the ith subject and jth cell type. This example data can be loaded by calling: ``` r data(se) ``` Below is an example code for building the `SummarizedExperiment` object from raw data frames or matrices. ``` r se <- SummarizedExperiment( assays = list(protein = protein_data), rowData = anno_protein ) metadata(se) <- list( gene_data = gene_data ) ``` Additional metadata can be incorporated using a command such as `metadata(se)$new_data <- new_data` if further information is necessary for visualization or csQTL (cell-type specific quantitative trait loci) analysis. For detailed instructions, please refer to the following sections and the function documentation. ## Cell-type proportion deconvolution This step estimates the proportions of cell types for each molecule type. In this current version, only `nnls` is supported as a single-source deconvolution method. Users can utilize other methods such as [CIBERSORT](, [MuSiC](, etc., to obtain the proportion estimates. These estimates will be useful as initial values in the subsequent deconvolution based on cross-source. It is important to note that the samples used in the cell-type proportion estimates must match the samples in the bulk protein expression data. ## Cross-source cell-type proportion deconvolution The reference matrix for pure cell proteomics may be incomplete due to limitations inherent in single-cell proteomics technologies. To address this issue, we propose a novel cross-source cell-type fraction deconvolution method "Joint Non-negative Matrix Factorization" (JNMF) that capitalizes on matched bulk transcriptome-proteome data. In the following example, we illustrate the process of estimating protein proportions by integrating information from deconvoluted transcriptomes. There are multiple options available for initializing cellular fractions and purified proteomics on a sample-wise basis, each with different input requirements. The following example illustrates using the CIBERSORT method to estimate initial proportions (`pinit`), coupled with an external reference matrix (`ref_pnl`) containing gene expression profiles or molecular signatures of different cell types. These references are typically obtained from small-scale single-cell or flow cytometry experiments. Please note that `ref_pnl` should have the same rescaling transformation as the bulk transcriptomes/proteomics and have be non-negative. It is recommended to use the `ajive_decomp` function (further discussed in the following section) with the `refactor_loading = TRUE` to enhance joint deconvolution. This setting enables cross-source feature selection aimed at identifying potential protein cell markers. If the estimated cell-type proportions contain any invalid or non-finite values, consider adjusting the step size. ``` r se <- ajive_decomp(se, use_marker = FALSE, refactor_loading = TRUE) se <- deconv(se, source = "cross", method = "JNMF", Step = c(10^(-9), 10^(-7)), use_refactor = 1000, pinit = se@metadata$prop_gene, ref_pnl = se@metadata$ref_gene) ``` ![](./vignettes/plot2-1.png)<!-- --> ## Integrative analysis AJIVE (Angle based Joint and Individual Variation Explained) is useful when there are multiple data matrices measured on the same set of samples. It decomposes each data matrix as three parts: (1) Joint variation across data types (2) Individual structured variation for each data type and (3) Residual noise. It is similar as principal component analysis (PCA), but principal component analysis only takes a single data set and decomposes it into modes of variation that maximize variation. AJIVE finds joint modes of variation from multiple data sources. Common normalized scores are one of the desirable output to explore the joint behavior that is shared by different data sources. Below we show the visualization of common normalized scores. It is clear that the disease status of these samples are well separated by the first common normalized scores. ``` r se <- ajive_decomp(se, plot = TRUE, group_var = "disease", scatter = TRUE, scatter_x = "cns_1", scatter_y = "cns_2") metadata(se)$cns_plot ``` ![](./vignettes/ajive-1.png)<!-- --> ### Comparison to PCA ``` r pca_res <- prcomp(t(assay(se)), rank. = 3, scale. = FALSE) pca_res_protein <- data.frame(pca_res[["x"]]) pca_res_protein <- cbind(pca_res_protein, slot(se, "metadata")$meta$disease) colnames(pca_res_protein)[4] <- "disease" ggpairs(pca_res_protein, columns = seq_len(3), aes(color = disease, alpha = 0.5), upper = list(continuous = "points") ) + theme_classic() ``` ![](./vignettes/pcaplot-1.png)<!-- --> ``` r pca_res <- prcomp(t(slot(se, "metadata")$gene_data), rank. = 3, scale. = FALSE) pca_res_gene <- data.frame(pca_res[["x"]]) pca_res_gene <- cbind(pca_res_gene, slot(se, "metadata")$meta$disease) colnames(pca_res_gene)[4] <- "disease" ggpairs(pca_res_gene, columns = seq_len(3), aes(color = disease, alpha = 0.5), upper = list(continuous = "points") ) + theme_classic() ``` ![](./vignettes/pcaplot-2.png)<!-- --> ## Feature filtering The feature filtering can be applied at both proteins/genes and SNPs. This step is optional but highly recommended to filter out some features that are not very informative or do not make much sense biologically. Note that this function is required to run even no filtering is expected to be done (just set `filter_method = "null"`) to obtain a consistent object format for downstream analysis. To apply feature filtering, annotation files for protein/gene and SNPs are required. The annotation file for proteins/genes should be stored in `rowData()`, where each row corresponds to a protein/gene with it’s symbol as row names. The first column should be a character vector indicating which chromosome each protein or gene is on. In addition, it should contain at least a “Start” column with numeric values indicating the start position on that chromosome, a “End” column with numeric values indicating the end position on that chromosome and a “Symbol” column as a unique name for each protein or gene. ``` r head(rowData(se)) #> DataFrame with 6 rows and 4 columns #> Chr Start End Symbol #> <character> <integer> <integer> <character> #> AAGAB 15 67202823 67254631 AAGAB #> AARS2 6 44300549 44313323 AARS2 #> AASS 7 122076491 122133726 AASS #> ABAT 16 8735739 8781427 ABAT #> ABCA1 9 104784317 104903679 ABCA1 #> ABCA2 9 137007931 137028140 ABCA2 ``` The information from genetic variants should be stored in a P (the number of SNP) by N (the number of samples, should match the sample in `counts` slot) matrix contained as an element (`SNP_data`) in `metadata` slot. Each matrix entry corresponds to the genotype group indicator (0 for 0/0, 1 for 0/1 and 2 for 1/1) for a sample at a genetic location. The annotations of these SNP should be stored as an element (`anno_SNP`) in `metadata` slot. It should include at least the following columns: (1) “CHROM” (which chromosome the SNP is on); (2) “POS” (position of that SNP) and (3) “ID” (a unique identifier for each SNP, usually a combination of chromosome and its position). The example SNP data provided here were restricted to chromosome 9 only. In practice, the SNPs may from multiple or even all chromosomes. ``` r head(slot(se, "metadata")$anno_SNP) #> CHROM POS ID #> 332373 9 137179658 9:137179658 #> 237392 9 104596634 9:104596634 #> 106390 9 28487163 9:28487163 #> 304108 9 126307371 9:126307371 #> 295846 9 122787821 9:122787821 #> 126055 9 33975396 9:33975396 ``` For filtering at protein or gene level, only those symbols contained in `target_SNP` argument will be kept and if not provided, all SNPs will be used for further filtering. For filtering at SNP level, there are three options: (1) filter out the SNPs that have minor allele frequency below the threshold defined by `filter_allele` argument (`filter_method = "allele"`); (2) filter out the SNPs that the fraction of samples in the smallest genotype group below the threshold defined by `filter_geno` argument (`filter_method = "allele"`) and (3) restrict to cis-regulatory variants (`filter_method = "distance"`): the SNPs up to 1 Mb proximal to the start of the gene. Both filtering methods can be applied simultaneously by setting `filter_method = c("allele", "distance")`. The results after filtering will be stored as an element (`choose_SNP_list`) in `metadata` slot. It is a list with the length of the number of proteins for downstream analysis. Each element stores the index of SNPs to be tested for corresponding protein. The proteins with no SNPs correspond to it will be removed from the returned list. To simplify the analysis, we only test 3 targeted proteins from chromosome 9 as an example. ``` r target_protein <- rowData(se)[rowData(se)$Chr == 9, ][seq_len(3), "Symbol"] se <- feature_filter(se, target_protein = target_protein, filter_method = c("allele", "distance"), filter_allele = 0.15, filter_geno = 0.05, ref_position = "TSS" ) #> Filter SNP based on distance for protein ABCA2 #> Filter SNP based on distance for protein ABCA1 #> Filter SNP based on distance for protein AGTPBP1 ``` In this example, the number of SNPs corresponding to each protein after filtering ranges from 7 to 26. ``` r unlist(lapply(slot(se, "metadata")$choose_SNP_list, length)) #> ABCA1 ABCA2 AGTPBP1 #> 26 22 7 ``` ## csQTL analysis In this step, the `TOAST` method is implemented for cell-type-specific differential expression analysis based on samples’ genotype. The result will be stored as an element (`TOAST_output`) in `metadata` slot. It is a list with the same length as tested proteins or genes where each element consists of a table including protein or gene symbol, SNP ID and p-values from each cell type. A significant p-value indicates that the protein or gene expression is different among the sample from different genotype groups. ``` r system.time(se <- csQTL(se)) #> csQTL test for protein ABCA1 #> csQTL test for protein ABCA2 #> csQTL test for protein AGTPBP1 #> user system elapsed #> 1.65 0.89 154.30 ``` We can check the results from csQTL analysis for one of target proteins: ``` r res <- slot(se, "metadata")$TOAST_output[[2]] head(res[order(apply(res, 1, min)), ]) #> protein SNP Astro ExNeuron InNeuron Micro #> 20 ABCA2 9:137341600 0.79285955 0.30763334 0.98265834 3.269529e-01 #> 8 ABCA2 9:136417159 0.44438506 0.34552330 0.84110974 7.881551e-01 #> 12 ABCA2 9:137238626 0.95156516 0.57109961 0.04382715 1.155626e-02 #> 1 ABCA2 9:137179658 0.91303086 0.20309228 0.04625565 3.962209e-05 #> 6 ABCA2 9:136950118 0.91123211 0.04722635 0.13748034 6.596898e-01 #> 16 ABCA2 9:136630751 0.05187403 0.47704608 0.63004912 4.619814e-03 #> Oligo #> 20 0.007780449 #> 8 0.039815389 #> 12 0.694488671 #> 1 0.108280025 #> 6 0.130649793 #> 16 0.163604428 ``` # Licenses of the analysis methods | method | citation | |------------------------------------------------------------------------|-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------| | [TCA]( | Rahmani, Elior, et al. “Cell-type-specific resolution epigenetics without the need for cell sorting or single-cell biology.” Nature communications 10.1 (2019): 3417. | | [AJIVE]( | Feng, Qing, et al. “Angle-based joint and individual variation explained.” Journal of multivariate analysis 166 (2018): 241-265. | | [TOAST]( | Li, Ziyi, and Hao Wu. “TOAST: improving reference-free cell composition estimation by cross-cell type differential analysis.” Genome biology 20.1 (2019): 1-17. |