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# GenomicDataCommons <!-- badges: start --> [![R-CMD-check](]( <!-- badges: end --> # What is the GDC? From the [Genomic Data Commons (GDC) website]( The National Cancer Institute’s (NCI’s) Genomic Data Commons (GDC) is a data sharing platform that promotes precision medicine in oncology. It is not just a database or a tool; it is an expandable knowledge network supporting the import and standardization of genomic and clinical data from cancer research programs. The GDC contains NCI-generated data from some of the largest and most comprehensive cancer genomic datasets, including The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and Therapeutically Applicable Research to Generate Effective Therapies (TARGET). For the first time, these datasets have been harmonized using a common set of bioinformatics pipelines, so that the data can be directly compared. As a growing knowledge system for cancer, the GDC also enables researchers to submit data, and harmonizes these data for import into the GDC. As more researchers add clinical and genomic data to the GDC, it will become an even more powerful tool for making discoveries about the molecular basis of cancer that may lead to better care for patients. The [data model for the GDC is complex](, but it worth a quick overview. The data model is encoded as a so-called property graph. Nodes represent entities such as Projects, Cases, Diagnoses, Files (various kinds), and Annotations. The relationships between these entities are maintained as edges. Both nodes and edges may have Properties that supply instance details. The GDC API exposes these nodes and edges in a somewhat simplified set of [RESTful]( endpoints. # Quickstart This software is available at and can be downloaded via `BiocManager::install`. To report bugs or problems, either [submit a new issue]( or submit a `'GenomicDataCommons')` from within R (which will redirect you to the new issue on GitHub). ## Installation Installation can be achieved via Bioconductor’s `BiocManager` package. ``` r if (!require("BiocManager")) install.packages("BiocManager") BiocManager::install('GenomicDataCommons') ``` ``` r library(GenomicDataCommons) ``` ## Check basic functionality ``` r status() #> $commit #> [1] "4dd3680528a19ed33cfc83c7d049426c97bb903b" #> #> $data_release #> [1] "Data Release 34.0 - July 27, 2022" #> #> $status #> [1] "OK" #> #> $tag #> [1] "3.0.0" #> #> $version #> [1] 1 ``` ## Find data The following code builds a `manifest` that can be used to guide the download of raw data. Here, filtering finds gene expression files quantified as raw counts using `STAR` from ovarian cancer patients. ``` r ge_manifest <- files() |> filter( cases.project.project_id == 'TCGA-OV') |> filter( type == 'gene_expression' ) |> filter( analysis.workflow_type == 'STAR - Counts') |> manifest(size = 5) ge_manifest #> id data_format access file_name #> 1 7c69529f-2273-4dc4-b213-e84924d78bea TSV open d6472bd0-b4e2-4ed1-a892-e1702c195dc7.rna_seq.augmented_star_gene_counts.tsv #> 2 0eff4634-f8c4-4db9-8a7c-331b21689bae TSV open 42165baf-b32c-4fc4-8b04-29c5b4e76de0.rna_seq.augmented_star_gene_counts.tsv #> 3 7d74b4c5-6391-4b3e-95a3-020ea0869e86 TSV controlled accf08d4-a784-4908-831a-7a08d4c5f0f5.rna_seq.star_splice_junctions.tsv.gz #> 4 dc2aeea4-3cd0-4623-92f4-bbbc962851cc TSV controlled 8ab508b9-2993-4e66-b8f9-81e32e936d4a.rna_seq.star_splice_junctions.tsv.gz #> 5 0cf852be-d2e3-4fde-bba8-c93efae2961a TSV open 93831282-1dd1-49a3-acd7-dae2a49ca62e.rna_seq.augmented_star_gene_counts.tsv #> submitter_id data_category acl type file_size created_datetime md5sum #> 1 7085a70b-2f63-4402-9e53-70f091f26fcb Transcriptome Profiling open gene_expression 4254435 2021-12-13T20:53:42.329364-06:00 19d5596bba8949f4c138793608497d56 #> 2 f0d44930-b1ad-447a-86b9-27d0285954b9 Transcriptome Profiling open gene_expression 4257461 2021-12-13T20:47:24.326497-06:00 d89d71b7c028c1643d7a3ee7857d8e01 #> 3 e6473134-6d65-414c-9f52-2c25057fac7d Transcriptome Profiling phs000178 gene_expression 3109435 2021-12-13T21:03:56.008440-06:00 fb8332d6413c44a9de02a1cbe6b018aa #> 4 f99b93a9-70cb-44f8-bd1f-4edeee4425a4 Transcriptome Profiling phs000178 gene_expression 4607701 2021-12-13T21:02:23.944851-06:00 26231bed1ef67c093d3ce2b39def81cd #> 5 fb4d7abe-b61a-4f35-9700-605f1bc1512f Transcriptome Profiling open gene_expression 4265694 2021-12-13T20:50:55.234254-06:00 050763aabd36509f954137fbdc4eeb00 #> updated_datetime file_id data_type state experimental_strategy #> 1 2022-01-19T14:47:28.965154-06:00 7c69529f-2273-4dc4-b213-e84924d78bea Gene Expression Quantification released RNA-Seq #> 2 2022-01-19T14:47:07.478144-06:00 0eff4634-f8c4-4db9-8a7c-331b21689bae Gene Expression Quantification released RNA-Seq #> 3 2022-01-19T14:01:15.621847-06:00 7d74b4c5-6391-4b3e-95a3-020ea0869e86 Splice Junction Quantification released RNA-Seq #> 4 2022-01-19T14:01:15.621847-06:00 dc2aeea4-3cd0-4623-92f4-bbbc962851cc Splice Junction Quantification released RNA-Seq #> 5 2022-01-19T14:47:07.036781-06:00 0cf852be-d2e3-4fde-bba8-c93efae2961a Gene Expression Quantification released RNA-Seq ``` ## Download data This code block downloads the 5 gene expression files specified in the query above. Using multiple processes to do the download very significantly speeds up the transfer in many cases. The following completes in about 15 seconds. ``` r library(BiocParallel) register(MulticoreParam()) destdir <- tempdir() fnames <- lapply(ge_manifest$id,gdcdata) ``` If the download had included controlled-access data, the download above would have needed to include a `token`. Details are available in [the authentication section below](#authentication). ## Metadata queries Here we use a couple of ad-hoc helper functions to handle the output of the query. See the `inst/script/README.Rmd` folder for the source. First, create a `data.frame` from the clinical data: ``` r expands <- c("diagnoses","annotations", "demographic","exposures") clinResults <- cases() |> GenomicDataCommons::select(NULL) |> GenomicDataCommons::expand(expands) |> results(size=6) demoDF <- filterAllNA(clinResults$demographic) exposuresDF <- bindrowname(clinResults$exposures) ``` ``` r demoDF[, 1:4] #> cause_of_death race gender ethnicity #> 2525bfef-6962-4b7f-8e80-6186400ce624 <NA> not reported female not reported #> 126507c3-c0d7-41fb-9093-7deed5baf431 Cancer Related not reported female not reported #> c43ac461-9f03-44bc-be7d-3d867eb708a0 <NA> not reported female not reported #> a59a90d9-f1b0-49dd-9c97-bcaa6ba55d44 Cancer Related not reported male not reported #> 59122a43-606a-4669-806b-6747e0ac9985 <NA> white male not hispanic or latino #> 4447a969-e5c8-4291-b83c-53a0f7e77cbc Cancer Related white female not hispanic or latino ``` ``` r exposuresDF[, 1:4] #> submitter_id created_datetime alcohol_intensity pack_years_smoked #> 2525bfef-6962-4b7f-8e80-6186400ce624 C3N-03839-EXP 2019-12-30T10:23:07.190853-06:00 Lifelong Non-Drinker NA #> 126507c3-c0d7-41fb-9093-7deed5baf431 C3N-01518-EXP 2018-06-21T14:27:48.817254-05:00 Lifelong Non-Drinker NA #> c43ac461-9f03-44bc-be7d-3d867eb708a0 C3N-03933-EXP 2019-03-14T08:23:14.054975-05:00 Lifelong Non-Drinker NA #> a59a90d9-f1b0-49dd-9c97-bcaa6ba55d44 C3N-02695-EXP 2019-03-14T08:23:14.054975-05:00 Occasional Drinker 16.8 #> 59122a43-606a-4669-806b-6747e0ac9985 C3L-03642-EXP 2019-06-24T07:53:15.534197-05:00 Lifelong Non-Drinker 39.0 #> 4447a969-e5c8-4291-b83c-53a0f7e77cbc C3L-03728-EXP 2019-06-24T07:53:15.534197-05:00 Lifelong Non-Drinker NA ``` Note that the diagnoses data has multiple lines per patient: ``` r diagDF <- bindrowname(clinResults$diagnoses) diagDF[, 1:4] #> ajcc_pathologic_stage created_datetime tissue_or_organ_of_origin age_at_diagnosis #> 2525bfef-6962-4b7f-8e80-6186400ce624 Stage IIB 2019-07-22T06:40:02.183501-05:00 Head of pancreas 19956 #> 126507c3-c0d7-41fb-9093-7deed5baf431 Not Reported 2018-12-03T12:05:16.846188-06:00 Temporal lobe 26312 #> c43ac461-9f03-44bc-be7d-3d867eb708a0 Stage III 2019-03-14T10:37:34.405260-05:00 Floor of mouth, NOS 25635 #> a59a90d9-f1b0-49dd-9c97-bcaa6ba55d44 Not Reported 2019-03-14T10:37:34.405260-05:00 Floor of mouth, NOS 16652 #> 59122a43-606a-4669-806b-6747e0ac9985 Not Reported 2019-07-22T06:40:02.183501-05:00 Upper lobe, lung 23384 #> 4447a969-e5c8-4291-b83c-53a0f7e77cbc Not Reported 2019-05-07T07:41:33.411909-05:00 Frontal lobe 29326 ``` # Basic design This package design is meant to have some similarities to the “tidyverse” approach of dplyr. Roughly, the functionality for finding and accessing files and metadata can be divided into: 1. Simple query constructors based on GDC API endpoints. 2. A set of verbs that when applied, adjust filtering, field selection, and faceting (fields for aggregation) and result in a new query object (an endomorphism) 3. A set of verbs that take a query and return results from the GDC In addition, there are auxiliary functions for asking the GDC API for information about available and default fields, slicing BAM files, and downloading actual data files. Here is an overview of functionality[^1]. - Creating a query - `projects()` - `cases()` - `files()` - `annotations()` - Manipulating a query - `filter()` - `facet()` - `select()` - Introspection on the GDC API fields - `mapping()` - `available_fields()` - `default_fields()` - `grep_fields()` - `available_values()` - `available_expand()` - Executing an API call to retrieve query results - `results()` - `count()` - `response()` - Raw data file downloads - `gdcdata()` - `transfer()` - `gdc_client()` - Summarizing and aggregating field values (faceting) - `aggregations()` - Authentication - `gdc_token()` - BAM file slicing - `slicing()` [^1]: See individual function and methods documentation for specific details.